Methodological Basis of Training Future Teachers of Natural Specialties for Professional Activity on the Basis of Differentiation and Individualization of Learning
Modern global social transformations have led to a clear trend in higher pedagogical education – the formation of a new educational paradigm aimed at socio-personality and competency-oriented training of future teachers, including of natural sciences. Therefore, it is quite obvious that an individual approach, along with differentiation in the training of future teachers of natural sciences, is a trend in the organization of the educational process in a modern higher education pedagogical institution. However, in order for this current trend to take its place in the updated practice of higher education pedagogical institutions firmly, it is necessary to carefully adapt it to the requirements and opportunities of modern pedagogical reality. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to determine the methodological foundations and recommendations for training future teachers of natural sciences for professional activity based on differentiation and individualization of education. To achieve this goal, a number of methods of scientific research were used within the scope of the study (methods of theoretical and critical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, concretization, direct observation of the educational and professional activities of students and teachers). Results. Within the scope of the article, it is determined that the main methodical strategies of training future teachers of natural sciences for professional activity on the basis of differentiation and individualization of education are the division of the educational process into four main areas: content, process, product and environment. A number of methodological recommendations were formulated, the adherence to which will contribute to the successful and effective preparation of future teachers of natural sciences for professional activity on the basis of differentiation and individualization of education: 1) the implementation of complex differentiated and individualized education is impossible without taking into account the individual intellectual and psychological characteristics of students in the education process; 2) the need to develop didactic support that promotes self-education, self-development, self-expression of students; freedom of choice for each student of the forms and methods of assimilation of educational material; the possibility for the teacher to choose the forms and content of the educational material that would make it possible to provide pedagogical support for each student taking into account the goals of individual development; 3) priority of fundamental knowledge: each student must acquire a certain amount of knowledge in the field of natural education, skills necessary for the chosen profession and for further continuous education; 4) use of reproductive, compilation and design projects within the training of future teachers of natural sciences; 5) the use of various differentiated methods of consolidating the learned material (group work; lesson-assessment; lesson-game). Conclusions. Complex of differentiated and individualized training of future teachers of natural sciences for professional activity enables this training according to own road map, provides for the possibility of individual choice and makes students active participants in their own educational and professional activities. The efficiency of using the method of training future teachers of natural sciences for professional activity on the basis of differentiation and individualization of education depends on taking into account the anthropological and psychological characteristics of the individual, as well as on using a range of tasks of varying complexity in the educational process.
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