Organization of Work of Vocational Education Institutions in the German Occupation Zones of Ukraine in 1941-1944: Historical and Pedagogical Aspects
The article considers the historical and pedagogical aspects of the creation of vocational education institutions system in the German occupation zones of Ukraine during the Second World War. The purpose of the article is to theoretically reconstruct and disclose the main foundations of Nazi policy in the field of vocational education, which was carried out in the occupation zones of Ukraine, to distinguish and compare the effectiveness of relevant measures in the «Galicia» district, the area of responsibility of the Temporary military administration, the Military zone and the Raichskommissariat «Ukraine». The authors of the article use methods of retrospective, historical-comparative, relatively comparable and chronological analysis of the identified sources, as well as classification and systematization of statistical data on vocational education institutions restored by the German occupation authorities. The results. As a result, it was found out that the urgent need of the German occupation authorities for personnel support in many industries, agriculture, medicine and the service sector led to the need to resume the work of vocational education institutions, although this contradicted the strategic goal of the occupation of Ukraine. This is confirmed by the historical, comparative and structural-functional analysis of the regulatory documents of the Reich Ministry of the Eastern occupied territories, reports in the local press of the occupation zones of Ukraine. The types of vocational education institutions that worked in the occupation zones of Ukraine are revealed. The separate faculties of technical universities, as well as medical, agricultural and teacher institutes worked In Ukraine. In the most systematic dimension, these trends can be traced in the Galicia district and the area of responsibility of the Temporary military administration. In a similar vein, the work of secondary vocational education institutions is reconstructed. In the worst condition, the work of vocational education institutions was carried out on the territory of the Reichskommissariat «Ukraine», since its head E. Koch opposed the rational measures of A. Rosenberg as the head of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories. It is stated that some of the German regional managers, organizing the broad exploitation of the captured territorial array, needed personnel, and therefore, in this area, they actually acted at their own discretion. Conclusions. It was concluded that the part of the educational institutions of the vocational education system of the German occupation zones of Ukraine managed to train qualified specialists and send them to work. Most of their graduates were students and pupils of former Soviet educational institutions, as well as Ukrainian youth who received initial vocational training.
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