Czech Experience of Future Teachers Training to Work in the Conditions of Inclusive Education
The article examines the Czech experience of future elementary school teachers training for activities in the context of inclusive education. The main models of inclusive education in the world and specifically the Czech Republic are considered. The basic laws concerning the training of teachers, special teachers, assistants are analyzed. The basic teachers’ competences are determined according to the Czech standard of the teacher’s profession quality; the necessary conditions for conferring the qualification of primary and secondary school teachers are defined. The system of higher education in the Czech Republic and the educational programs of leading higher educational institutions for the preparation of primary school teachers and special teachers are considered. The Charles University and the Masaryk University were selected for the research as leading, because these institutions ranked the highest in world rankings. The article acquaints readers with the activity of pedagogical faculties of both universities. The particular attention was paid to the activities of the departments of pedagogy and special pedagogy. The curricula of training teachers, assistant teachers for a work in inclusive education were analyzed. This made it possible to state that bachelor/master’s programs were designed to provide graduates with the necessary knowledge, ethical values and practical skills necessary for constructing a pedagogical career. The contents of the bachelor/master’s program provides an extensive and deep knowledge in the fields of inclusive education, including the theory of special pedagogy, the necessary
skills and abilities in providing medical services, knowledge of the behavior of a child with different pathologies or abnormalities. It is found that a theoretical training is given to most of the study time, the courses of in-depth specialization are offered. It is determined that in the process of special teachers’ professional training in the Czech Republic, three main components can be distinguished: general pedagogical, special pedagogical, specialization with a choice in two main types of A and B. The bachelor training is carried out in two models: simultaneous (parallel, integrative) and sequential. During the study, it was emphasized that an adherence to the unified structure of training bachelors/masters of special education for all institutions of higher education in the Czech Republic contributes to improving their theoretical, methodological and practical basis, facilitates the students’ transition from one educational institution to another, an admission to a magistracy in another institution of higher education, gives a few specializations. Consequently, the peculiarities and positive aspects of training specialists for a work in the conditions of inclusive education in the Czech Republic are highlighted in this article as those, that could be used in Ukraine taking into account the peculiarities and traditions of the national high school.
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